Thursday, March 31, 2011

The motto of Jainism is "Paraspar upaggraho Jeevaanaam".



Well generally we think that this means that the souls should help each other.Yes, this is one of its meanings but this is not the real meaning of it.
Let, me first tell you that this sentence is actually the sutra no.21 of the chapter no.5 of Sri Tattvarthsutraji written by Acharya Sri Umaswamiji some 2000 yrs back and is the only ancient text to be accepted by various panths of both the digmaber as well as swetamber lines.

Now,I would also like to tell you in the sutra just previous to this sutra , Acharya Sri tells us that the pudgal that is the non-living matter and energy also do upkar or help or interact with the souls.And in the present sutra he says that the souls do upkar to each other.But, here the term "Upgarha" means that this upkar is not only good but can be bad also.

See, a person can give you happiness and another person can give you tears also- isn't it? Actually nobody gives anything to other but they becomes the nimmittas or the instrumental causes in the fruitition of the soul's own karmas.
For instance, due to the rise of my own good karmas, I was to get the knowledge of Jain Dharma and a guru comes and teaches me dharma, then as per practical or vyavhaar point of view the guru has done upkar to me or has helped me- isn't it? So the guru becomes the instrumental cause in my acquiring of the knowledge of the Jain dharma.But, the real cause of it is the decay or decline of my own gyaanavarni karma (a bad karma)- yes or no?

Similarly, a master gives employment to a servent so he is helping him, but the servant is serving him, so he is also helping him.And like wise different souls or living beings help each other mutually and to be more correct becomes instrumental causes in the things happening to each other.
Suppose Mr X has a aayu or life of 100yrs as per his previous karmas, but Mr Y gives him poison at an age of 50, then he can die at this age also and will complete the aayu of his remaining 50yrs within some seconds or minutes or so.
So, here we see that Mr X and Mr. Y did mutually interacted with each other and Y seems to be killing X. but actually Y is only the instrumental cause in the fruitition of some own karmas of Mr X due to which he was to lose his life prematurely.

So, the word 'Upgraha' doesn't means doing welfare only.
Then why we took this sutra as our motto?

It is because we take only the positive part of the sutra as our motto, that is we souls can mutually help each other for our betterment or progress in the path of salvation.

Dr Amit Prakash Jain

Wednesday, February 23, 2011

The evolution of the concept of Shaashan devi-devta in Jainism:



Well, it is a subject of great interest and detailed and unbiased research.I will be writing on this subject in subsequent series based on the facts I find in the writings of Various scholars.
I was reading yesterday an online google-book on the history of jainism by Mr.Humphrey.
Acharya Jinsen who lived in the 8th-9th century A.D. is a very important acharya in Jainism.He has written many texts and one of them is Adipuran.
In one of the chapters of this text.He says to Jain lay people to put out all the idols of non-jain devi devatas from their houses and to stop their worship.Well, this gives us a hint that during this time , the Jain householders must be worshiping non-jain gods also.
Lord Parshvanathji is special.His idols and his temples are maximum in number.
What can be its reason???

I din't want to hurt anybody's feeling but would like to surely say that one of its reason is the association of the snake-god and goddess Dharnendra and Padmaavati with Lord Parshvanathji.
In the Ajanta caves , we can see idol of Lord Parshvanathji with Padmavati and Dharnendra protecting him from the attack of the demon Kamatha.

But, it must be noted that such attacks are called as "Upsargs" and upsargs cannot occur after kevalgyan that is after attaining the omniscience. And, Jains are to worship a person as God only after he become a Kevali.

So, by seeing the hood of snake on the head of Lord Parshvanathji, one thing can come to our minds that this idol may represent him before the attainment of Kevalgyaan.However, let me also say that, this type of Idol can also represnt Lord Parshvanathaji who Just got kevalgayn and so the sankehood by Padmavati was still their for a moment and in this idol can be worshiped as that of Omniscient Parshvanathji.But, this is my idea, I don't know how many of you will agree to it, but tto satisfy myself with the snakehood on the head of a kevali, I need to have a belief of this kind, so that it doesn't contradicts with the very basic concept of Jainism that everything which happens to person is due to his own karmas.So if attack is occurring to you, means you ghaatiya karmas are still there.

Well, Padmavati and Dharnendra has a perfect role in the life of Lord Parshvanath and so if they were declared as his shaashan devi-devtas, then it could be digested.But what about other Tirthankars??? For example Ambika or Kushumandilini who is the shaashan devi of Lord Neminath.There is no such story sort of thing in this case.You also see the names of few other shaashan devis of Jain tirthankars like Gauri,Durga,Jwalamalini etc. All these have great admiration with the same name and nearly same get-up in hindus also.

What was the need of these shaashan devi-devtas???
Why you have to worship them, when you know that you get everything as per your karmas only.
Well, there are many more such questions and the history even gives us reasonable answers for this.

8th century Acarya Jinsen had a significant and major role in writing down the general rules or say code of conduct etc for Jains.For instance, according to some sources, it is said that He was the first to write about Janeeyu or yagyopaveet that is sacred thread accross the neck upto the belly and back diagonally.This yagyopaveet was very peculiar in brahminism and was to wore by the so-called upper castes men like ksahtriyas, brahmins and vaishyas.

So, it must have been something that which signifies sacredness or purity etc.In Jainism, one of our scholars (whom I respect a lot) said to me in his mail that as per jainism, this yagyopaveet has three threads which signified right faith, right knowledge and right conduct respectively.But, I personally would like to call it as Jainisation of a brahminical ritual.

This ritual , I just gave as an initial example and the real story is now to come.Well, similarly many of brahminical deities were Jainised during this period.Some sources even says that during this same period the female deities got entry into all the three major religions of India.In hinduism or brahminism they entered as Kaili, Durga etc.In buddhism, they entered as Tara devi and in Jainism as Yakshinis or shaashan devis like Padmavati, Kali,Durga etc.

To begin with let us see the socio-cultural scenario of this time.Well, the vedic sacrificial rituals were very much minimised by the Jainism and Buddhism's might.But then brahmins took to other deities and did splendid idol worship with bhakti and general rituals and good mythological stories full of simplicity and magic.A house holder needs a lot of things in his life like health, wealth, power, progeny etc.So, it is very simple for him to worship a god or goddess who can promise to give all these worldly pleasures along with a promise to take care of him in eternal life and give him moksha or salvation.It was really now very simple for a common householder to follow these.

The Jains were surrounded by a vast majority of non-jains who were following these things.Let us again see what Acarya Jinsen says in his Adipuran.He says that a person who has true faith Jainism should remove the idols of false gods or mithya devi-devtas from their houses.He should, in public manner, take them somewhere else and leave or abondan them.He shoud say to them that till now he worshiped and respected you (mithya or false gods) out of ignorance.But now the time has come for us to pray our own true gods (Samyak devtas), so do not get angry and you (false gods) can go wherever you want.

So, this shows that during this period there were non-jain god being worshiped by jains.And, now the jain munis were trying to bring the jain laymen back to pure jainism.But, this would not have been so simple.
The term "Samyak-devtaas" as I understand must be The Passionless kevali or omnicient Jinas.But there are scholars who consider these samyak-devtas as Jain-guardian angels like Dharnendra and Padmavati etc.

No doubt, Dharnendra and Padmavati were the first of this kind to be accepted in Jain temples along with Jinas as they ahve a perfect role in the real life story of Lord Parshvanath.So, I feel that their idols must have been initially just to show the picture or jhanki of a real incident of Lord Parshvanath's life.Then they were also respected along with the worship of Lord Prashvanath.Initially, they were respected or worshiped only along with the Jinas's idol.But later on, they got a separate seat inside or just outside the Jinas's temple and then they were individually and independently worshiped.

Well,the some kind of acceptance and recognition of the devi-devtas in Jainism paved a way for their independent worship by the Jains without being tagged as going outside the boundaries of Jainism.
But, then appeared a great change,, though gradually.These devi-devtas cannot be made out or differentiated from their Hindu or brahminical counterparts.Even many of the Jain yakshinis names like Kali, Mahakali,Gauri, Ambika etc are having their counterparts with the same names in Brahminism.

I would like to add here one important thing that though Jains considers male sex to be more powerful in better but in case of worship of devi-devtas it is just the opposite.Padmavati is famous but Dharnendra is not so famous.We know Ambika or Kushumandilini devi but I myself don't know the name of her male counterpart or her yakasha.

Why this was there,I can't say.Well, certainly we cannot hypothesize that the yakshinis were more powerful than their yakshas as it is no where mentioned in any of the Jain literature.

At Girnarji, we can find a big temple of Ambika devi who is the shaashan devi of Lord Neminathji who got salvation from the Girnarji tirths.Though this temple is under the hindus but even amny Jains do also go to this temple as they considers the devi as the shaashan devi of Neminath.

Ambika devi is better known as Kushumandilini devi in South India.In sravanbelgola where the main idol is of Lord Bahubali, we can find a dominance of Kushumandilini devi, though she is no way related with Bhagwan Bahubali.

If we arrange the devis in their decreasing order of popularity then of course Padmavati is first followed by Kushumandilini and Chakreshwari devi 9the shaashan devi of Lord Rishabhdevji).It would be worth mentioning that we have one Taradevi also as one of the shaash devis in Jainism.Remember, that a goddess with the name Taradevi is the main goddess in Buddhism.

There are a lot of stories about the life of Bhagwan Rishbhdevji but the mention of Chakreshwari devi is not so prominent and of course till date I have not heard any of her role in the real life story of Lord Rishabhdevji.But we can find her idols in so many temples.And not to get surprised by her famous independent temple in Punjab do exists till today.Humcha is a famous Jain tirth in Karanataka which is mostly dedicated to Padmavati and to our surprise there , her master Bhagwan Sri Parshvantha is not the main centre of faith.

Then, when the independent positions , seats , temples and even tirths were given to these devis then their worship became more and more splendid and took all it can from the contemprory hinduism or Brahminical rituals which gave rise to a new regime of Yatis in Swetamabers and Bhattaraks in Digambers.

Well,the splendid form of worship included the abhisek or giving bath to the idols with water, milk, curd, sandal, fruit-juices etc,flower garlands, fruits and also sweets and so on.Even the concept of Prasad came into Jainism.The prasad is the flower and sweets etc given to the devotees after offering the same to the idol of the deity.

In North India, we have a culture of growing wheat plants in small pots during navratri for 9 days by hindus and is called as "Jawareys".Well,in South India, this practice of Jawareys is done by few jains also in Jain temples for these shaashan devis.Even they celebrate Navratri.

The specialised worship of these deities also brought the cult of yantras in Jainism like Ghantakaran yantra etc.

Well, in these situations who will be expected to study texts like Samyasarji which talks about only the Soul !!! People virtually lost the concept of God in Jainism.If by worshiping some devi-devtas they gives you wealth, health etc then what is the imporatnce of Karma theory and what is the difference between Jainism and Hinduism.Also, the accommodation of the caste system in Jainism, diepersed its uniqueness.

But, everything has its own plus and minus points.This form of Jainism was suitable to withstand the forces of Bhakti movements, Shankracharyas etc.
Due to devi-devtas similar to that of Hindus, the Jain temples got a virtual security from the orthodox hindus or rather the brahmins.

Bhattaraks also were successful in preserving our Jain texts.They were able to keep up the jains as jains that is they prevented their conversion to Brahaminism.
Bhattaraks were a powerful institution and many seats of bhattraks were established in North India also.Even in Bundelkhand's Kundalpur there used to be a bhattarak's seat.

But, again the time changed and new force called Muslims enetred the land from the north-west.They were against the idol-worship and there began a new era in which all these rituals etc were being questioned even by the locals like Kabirdas etc.These inspired Jains and hindus both.As a result sthanakwasi sect came upo in sewtambers , Taranpanthis in Digambers came up.At the same time sikhism also originated.Remember all these faiths are against the idol-worship and its rituals.Sthankawasi even do not recognise many aagams of murtipujak swetambers which are dedicated to idol-worship or its rituals.
But all these were in north and west India where the muslim influence was prominent , while in South the splendid and ritualistic form of religion continued somehow.

Many Scholars like Sri Banarsidasji etc started to study the ancient text of Jainisma and soon found out that the rituals and devi-devtas etc are alien to the real teachings of the omniscient Jinas.They started a movement which was based on the teachings and texts of great Jain Acharyas like Sri Kundkund and this movement finally gave rise to the Terapanth of Digamber Jains (It is different from the terapanth of Swetamber Jains).

The Terapanthi-digambers do not worship any devi-devtas except for the veetragi Jinendra bhagwan, Jiana texts and Veetragi munis.They do not offer flowers, panchamrith abhisek, sweets, food, prasad etc.They don't do worship after the sunset.They do not regards Bhattaraks as their gurus.
The remaining panth who continued to follow Bhattaraks and shaashan devi-devtas etc were eventually called as Beespanthis.

Now, it is to be noted that though there were a lot of swetamber jain munis during the mughal period in the North and western India, but the digamber munis were almost absent in the North India during the muslim period.In south India, apart from the bhattaraks, the digamber munios used to be there but very less in number.

In the year 1760, a saint from the sthanakwasi swetamber tradition named as Sri Bhikkanandiji or Acharya Sri Bhikshu founded a new sect called as Terapanth of swetamabers.He has some differences with his guru.Terapanth of Swetamber tradition is against idol-worship and they have only one acharya at a time.They lay importance to 5 anuvratas, 3 guptis and 5 samitis.

We can see that due to the emergence of a reformist terapanth in digamber jainism at the time of Akbar by Banaridasji etc , somehow curbed the increase in the conversion of the digamber Jains to the non-idol worshiping Taranpanth as the terapanth in itself provided a lot of reforms from the ritualistic tradition to the digambers of North and Western India who were living in the Muslim dominance.

In Terapanthi Digamabers Pt. Daulatramji, Pt.Todarmalji etc wrote many books based on the ancient jain texts in the local languages.The Chhehdhala of Pandit Daulatramji has a significant role in the religious lives of Digamber Jains of North and Central India.

In the 20th century, Acharya Shantisagarji revived the digamber muni tradition again.He faced a lot of difficulties but somehow he was successful.I personally feel that the tolerant and modern Britishers also were a great factor in this.
After him a lot of Digamber munis came up and today they are hundreds in number.
But, there occurred some differences in between the digamber munis so as to support the bhattarak tradition and the Shaashan devi-devtas or not.
Now, a days the ones who supporst them are called as beespanth sadhus while those who do not support them are called as the terapanthi sadhus.But, again, both there types of munis are respected and worshiped by all the types of Digamber lay-jains.

In the mid-20th century, a sthankwasi swetamber muni in Gujarat, got influenced by Sri Samyasarji text of Digamber tradition and he changed his faith to a Digamber Jain.His name was Kanji Swami.But, he didn't became a digamber or naked muni.He used to wear whilte clothes like a brahmachari of Digamber tradition.He laid importance on the Nishchay point of view that the real point of view and his followers were against the conduct of the present-day munis.The difference of Nishchay and vyavhar nay or point of views became severe and the a new panth called Kanjipanth or Songarhis was established.They believe in digamber munis but says that at present there is no true digamber jain muni.Though they lkay emphasis on the nishchay point of view but they also conduct panchkalyanak gajrath mahotsav etc.

Last, but not least, to build-up a tradition behind a great person is a very common thing.Recently, some disciple of Sri Kanji Swami claimed that he has become a Tirthankar at Videh kshetra.But many of his followers didn't accepted it and so God knows and not any surprise if we see two panths in the Kanjipanth itself.

Recently, many Sthanakwasi munis have started to join the causes of Jina idols and temples also.

The story will continue, but from my side I have finished my write-up.

Regards.

Dr Amit Prakash Jain


Friday, January 21, 2011

11.Bodhi Durlabh Bhavana: and 12.Dharm Bhavana :

11.Bodhi Durlabh Bhavana:

Well,Bodhi means knowledge and durlabh means ‘attained with a lot of difficulties and that too is very rare’.So this bhavana tells us about how the true knowledge is very difficult to attain.There are many factors which facilitates to attain the true knowledge and these factors are very rare and the soul gets them due to his good karmas.

I would first like to describe here what Sri Mangatramji says in this context in his barah bhavana.I personally like this description the most.He says that it is very difficult and rare for a soul who is in nigod to get the birth as a asthavar (that is in form of earth-particles, fire, wind, water and vegetations) or the life forms which do not moves on their own.

Then again it is very difficult for a sthavara to get birth as a tras or the life forms which moves on their own.In that also, the best and most difficult is the human birth.The devtas or heavenly-beings also desires to get human birth because only human beings can attain omniscience and salvation.So, this human birth is the most precious one.

Then , in human birth also, to get a good country, good family etc is rare and difficult.Then to attain right faith is difficult .Again , with that right faith also , to follow the self-discipline and other vows are more difficult and rare.Then even more precious and rare is to become muni and follow the mahavratas.In that also, it is very rare and difficult to attain the keval-gyan and get moksha.

So, we can see that so many factors play their roles in the attainment of the keval gyan or the Bodhi-durlabh.So, if you get these factors then never waste them.Utilize them to their fullest.If we lose them , then we can get back by such a difficulty and rarity which can be equated with the example of a jewel being lost in a sea and we know how difficult is to get it back from the sea.

Pt. Daulatramji says that for the infinite times this soul has taken so many births including that of Ahmindra (great heavenly beings ) but because of lack of samya gyan or right-knowledge he never got joy or happiness.This right knowledge is very difficult and rare and so the munis follow this right-knowledge to get moksha or salvation.

So, this Bodhi-durlabh bhavana tells us that right faith and right knowledge are very difficult and rare to attain and so if once we get them then follow them as right-conduct and attain kevalgyan and moksha.

Dr. Amit Prakash Jain

12.Dharm Bhavana :

What is ‘Dharm’? Well let me clear that the dharm being spoken about here is neither ‘religion’ nor the ‘dharm-dravya’ which is one of the 6 substances or dravyas.

There are a lot of definitions of ‘Dharm’ in Jainism, but the ultimate and final reality to which all those definitions leads to is – “Vastu swabhavo iti dhammo”.This definition as said by Sri Bhagwan KundKund Acarya says the nature of a substance is its dharma.

We are the substance ‘soul’, so let us consider what is dharm for us?

The nature of soul is ‘to know and to see’, so to be in this, is our dharma.

Dharma is the one which gives us real happiness and makes us free from the sorrows and help us to attain our eternal bliss or salvation.

But, this definition is the ultimate one and is the goal.So, there must be some paths also to reach this goal, so for that our great acaryas have given some definitions of dharma based on the paths to reach the nature of the self-soul.

For this, we have 10 steps to reach the final swabhav or dharma.These ten steps are Uttam -kshama, mardav,aarjav,satya, shauch,saiyam,tap, tyag,akinchan and brahmacharya which means forgiveness,politeness or softness,straightforwardness,truth,purity of mind,self-decipline,penance,sacrifice,non-attachment and celibacy respectively.

The real meanings of these 10 folds or das-lakshan dharmas should not be taken as their general terminology seems to be , as in Jainism, these have got really very deep meanings.This will be altogether a big and vast chapter, which, for the time being, let us keep aside and concentrate on the ‘dharma bhavana’ here.

Sri Mangatramji says that believe in “Ahimsa parmo dharmah” means non-voilence is the foremost dharma.But, we have to know what is real meaning of ahimsa and what is the practical meaning of ahimsa, in which the former is Nishchay and the latter is vyavhar definition of ahimsa respectively.See it is a completely vast and exhaustive subject in itself and so I am just giving only some brief points .

Well, the nischay or real definition of amsa is to be in the swabhav or the nature of self-soul which is only ‘to know and to see’,because himsa occurs only when the soul out of his nature or Swabhav.But, because the worldly souls are not in their real swabhav or nature so we need vyavhar or the practical definitions to reach this ahimsa or actually our self-soul’s swabhav or nature.And so all other definitions of Dharma are the paths or steps to reach the final or real dharm that is Swabhav.

Pt. Daulatramji says that samyakdarshan, samyak gyan and samyak charitra is dharma.The soul who follows all these 3 will attain moksha or salvation and will enjoy his eternal bliss forever.

What is samyakdarshan? For this Sri Tattvarthsutraji clearly says that the faith in the true nature of the tattvas or realities is samyak darshan or right faith.These realities are 7 viz jeev, ajeev. Aasarav, bandh, samvar, nirjara and moksha which are soul, non-living matter and enery,influx of karmas, bondage of karmas with soul,stoppage of influx of karmas,shedding of karmas, completely free and pure state of soul free from all the karmas respectively.

But, we have to note here that one has to have faith in these tattvas as described by omniscient Sri Jinendra bhagwan and not in any other way.

“Chir rakshak dharma humara ho , ho dharma humara chir sathi, Jag main a humara koi tha, hum bhi na rahein jag ke sathi”

Sri Yugalji says that from the beginingless time this dharm was our true companion.No one , except for this dharm, was any companion of this soul in this world and so this soul should also not have any attachment with this world

Sri Mangatramji says that with is dharm he would workhard or do purushartha to attain moksha or salvation and will never return back in this sorrowful world again.

This was the dharam bhavana in very short.

Note: Here, I finish with a small and brief description of all the 12 bhavanas or anuprekshas as said in Sri Jinvani.I have tried to do my level best.But as I am neither good at understanding of the scriptures nor at the language, so there would have been a lot of errors in my write-ups.So, the wise men are requested to please correct it and read it accordingly.

I would pray to Omniscient Lord Jinendra to please forgive me for the mistakes which I would made in these write-ups knowingly and unknowingly.”Om namo bhagwatey Vrishabhdevaay !!!”

Amit Prakash Jain

8.Samvar bhavana:,9.Nirjara bhavana :and ,10.Lok bhavana:

8.Samvar bhavana:

“Samvar” means ‘stoppage of the influx of the karmas’.Samvar is one of the 7 realities or tattvas as described by Kevali Bhagwan.Samvar means stoppage of influx of all type of karmas whether good or bad that is whether punya or paap.

Sri Mangatramji, in his barah bhavana, says that when we put a stopper or a lid on the hole in the boat then, it stops the entry of water into our boat.This water was very harmful for the boat as it could drown it.

So, is the case of samvar.When the soul has feeling of attachment, or hatred etc then the influx or aasrav of karmas occurs and it binds to the soul as a part of its kaarman sharir (kaarman body).But, when the soul avoids any feeling of attachment or hatred etc and when he thinks on barah bhavanas, 22 parishehs, samitis, guptis , das-lakshan dharmas (uttam kshama, mardav etc..) then there occurs a stoppage to the influx of karmas and this is what is called as samvar bhavana.

Pt. Daulatramji, in his Chhah dhala says that the souls who have not allowed their thoughts or feelings to take the form of attachment, liking or disliking etc, and have thoughts and feelings of only the nature of the self-soul, only those souls have been successful in stopping the aasrav or the influx of the karmas and obtaining samvar to get eternal bliss.

So, you see that these barah bhavanas are themselves a cause of samvar or a means to stop the influx of the karmas.

Dr. Amit Prakash Jain

9.Nirjara bhavana :

‘Nirjara’ means shedding of the karma particles.

Nirjara or shedding of the karma particles from the kaarman body of the soul is occurs when the fruition or maturation of karma occurs or simply speaking when the karma gives its results then it is shed off.This type of shedding of the karmas is called as “Akaam nirjara” or natural or unintentional shedding of karmas.But , it is of simply no use, because by the time a karma is shed-off, a lot of new karmas influx and get bonded with the soul.And these karmas are the route cause of the vicious cycle of the birth and death for this soul and so they are the cause of sorrow to the soul.

There is another type of Nirjara which called as Sakaam nirjara and it is of the use of soul ion his path of salvation.

Sakaam nirjara means intentional shedding of the karmas or the shedding of karmas by penance or tapas both internal as well as external called as antar-tap and bahya-tap respectively.

Sri Mangatramji says that when we have put a stopper or a lid to the hole in the boat then no new entry of water into the boat occurs and this was samvar.But what about the water which has already accumulated in the boat? With this water inside the boat, it will not be possible to carry on our journey.So, he says that this water can go out by 2 means.One is due to sun which evaporates this water at its own time and rate.This is just like ‘akaam nirjara’.While the other way is that the boatman himself work hard to throw out this accumulated water with his own hands.This is just what we say is Sakaam nirjaraa’.So what work should a soul do to remove out his karmas? It is the practice of both the internal and the external tapas or penances.This leads to shedding of the accumulated karmas in a short time or before their maturation or fruiting.

Samvar sahit karo tap prani, miley mukti rani

Sri Mangatramji says that , soul should do penance or tapas with samvar.Means the shedding of karmas must be accompanied with the stoppage of the influx of new karmas otherwise there will be no use of shedding of the karmas.

So,Nirjara bhavana tells us that With sakaam nirjara or intentional shedding of karmas, the soul can get free of all his karmas and can get moksha and enjoy his eternal bliss for all the times to come.

Dr. Amit Prakash Jain

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10.Lok bhavana:

“Lok” means the part of universe in which all the 6 substances viz, soul,matter and energy,dharm,adharma,akash or space and kaal or time resides.Rest of the remaining infinite universe where except for the akash dravya or space no other drvaya or substance exists is “alok” or non-lok.

In this bhavana the soul has to think about what is this lok in reality and why he is roaming about from one birth to another in this lok.

Pt Daulatramji says that this lok has not been created by anybody and nobody is holding it up.It existed from the beginingless time from on its own and no one can destroy it.Nobody is the doer or the director of this lok.It is filled with all the six substances viz, jeev,pudgal,dharm,adharm,akaash and kaal.Due to his beginingless ignorance and attachment feelings this soul is roaming from one birth to another in this lok and is suffering from all kinds of sorrows.

Hum chnod chaley yeh lok tabhi lokant virajein shan main jaa

Nij lok hamara vaasa ho phir bhav bandhan se hum ko kya?"

Means : When the purifying fire of penance or tap is lightened and in that the chains of karmas of the soul gets melted (that is nirjara or shedding-off of karmas).And from all the parts of the self-soul the streams of Amritha (that which is undestroyable and that which is the soul’s self- nature, that is anant gyan and darshan) sprout up.

And then at that time only,the soul will leave this world and will get situated at the top of this world (salvation) where all the salvated souls resides.The soul will reside in his self and that will be his actual world and whatever happens to this destroyable world- it will not affect him.

So, the lok bhavana tells us to meditate on the lok and gets our doubts clear and think about how to get rid from the vicious sorrowful journey in this lok.

Dr.Amit Prakash Jain

6.Ashuchi Bhavana: and 7.Aashrav bhavna:

6.Ashuchi Bhavana:

The term “Asuchi” simply means ‘impure’.Whose impurity is talked about here?

Here the impurity of the body is talked about.Our body is actually very impure or rather dirty and we all know it, but do not accept this.

This thought or bhavana is to make the soul realize that the body with which he is having so much of attraction is actually so dirty and how he could like it or get attached with it?

I being a doctor, has seen human body from very close.When we open the body, everything is so dirty and it smells very bad.And you know many things are so dirty that we even do not want to see them again.

“Pal rudhir raagh mal thairy kikasawa aditein maily

Nav dwar bahein ghin kaari, ass deh karey kim yaari?”

Sri Daulatramji in his Chhah dhala says that this body is made of pus, blood,bone, muscles, faecal matter, fats and other impure and dirty substances and the waste products from this body comes out from nine gates viz anus, mouth, 2 ears, 2 eyes,sweat-pores of skin,2 nostrils.And when these waste comes out, then you don’t even feel to like to see it, then how you (soul) can have attachment with this body?

“Jiske shringaaron maim era yah menhga jeevan ghul jaata,

Atyant ashuchi jad-kaaya se iss chetan ka kaisa naata?”

Sri Yugalji asks that this impure body and its make-up, the soul’s precious human life is wasted is actually not worthy of his attachment.How can a knowledgeable soul have attachment with this impure and non-living body?

Note: Here this bhavana is not to produce the feeling off hatred towards the body, but it is just to say that soul is different and body is different, soul is pure in reality while body is impur in reality.Both are different , but due to his beginingless ignorance this soul is having attachment with this body and is roaming around in the vicious cycle of birth and death.

Dr. Amit Prakash Jain

7.Aashrav bhavna:

The term ‘Ashrav’ means ‘the coming or influx of the karmas’.

Sahrav is one of the seven tattvas of realities as described by Sri Jinendra bhagwan.

Pt.Daulatramji, in his Chhah dhala says that due to the nimmitha or yog of man-vachan-kaay or thought-speech and action, there occurs vibrations in the soul which causes the influx of the karmas.This is called as Aashrav.This Aashrav causes sorrows to the soul.The ones who are wise will try to get away from the aashrav.

“Din raat shubhaashubh bhaavon se mera vyaapar chalaa karta

Manas vaani aru kaaya se aashrav ka dwar khula rehta.”

Sri Yugalji says that this soul due to earlier bonded karmas or due to ignorance about the true nature of the self-soul,does non-self-nature feelings like good or punyas and bad or paaps, and then through the means of these thoights, speech and the actions, there occurs the influx of new karmas and this is called as aashrav.

Sri Mangatramji in his barah bhavna gives example of a boat.He says that if soul is a boat then his ignorance causes hole or holes in the boat, through which the water enters into the boat and we all know how much harm this water can do to the boat in a sea.So is the case of this aatma or soul and the influx of karmas or aashrav is like the entry of water into the boat.

Dr. Amit Prakash Jain

4.Ekattva bhavana:and 5.Anyattva Bhavana:

4.Ekattva bhavana:

‘Ekattva’ in simple words means ‘one-self is alone’, or rather the self-soul is alone or solitary.

See, the meaning of this thought is to explain that no one is your’s except for you yourself that is the self-soul.Not even the body in which the soul resides is your’s then how can any other person or thing can be of the self-soul.And if nothing is of self-soul then why to have feeling or faith of belongingness in the non-self others ? And this misconception is the cause of all our sorrows and our vicious cycle of birth and deaths.

“Aap akela avtarey ,marai akela hoy

Yu kabahun iss jeev ko saathi sadaa na koi.”

Sri Bhudhardasji says that you take birth alone and when you die that time also go alone, no one comes with you nor goes with you.So there is infact no companion of your’s.You means self-soul is all alone.

“Janmey marey akela chetan , such-dukh ka bhogi,

Aur kisi ka kya ek din yah deh judi hogi……………….”

Sri Mangatramji says that this soul takes birth and dies all alone .And even when this body has to be left after death then who else can belong to this soul? Means no one is companion of this soul.And when on your death your family members cries they actually cries for the attachment with your body and the happiness they were getting from.They can come with the body till the cremation only and what after that?

Just as we meet people in a fare etc , we meet the so-called family in a life and we have to leave them and go all alone after death and we don’t know whether we’ll meet them again or not.!!!

In Chah dhala Sri daulatramji says that whatever deeds or karmas are done by thius soul- whether good or bad,their results will have to be suffered by this soul all alone.And your son, wife etc are only for their selfish aspirations, they cannot share the sufferings from the results of your karmas.

“Mai ekaaki ekattva liye ekattva lye sab hi aatey

Tan dhan ko sathi samjha tha par ye bhi chhod chaley jaatey”

Sri Yugalji says that I means self-soul and other souls all are all-alone in themselves,no one is a companion of the other.He says that if the soul thinks that his body, wealth etc are his friends or companons then, he is totally wrong as these things also leaves him at death

5.Anyattva Bhavana:

“Anyattva” means to have difference and distinctness.”Anya” means “the other”.

Well, it will be cleared under the following description.

Actually this thought or feeling says that the soul is distinct in itself and he is different and totally distinct from ‘the others’ like body and other pudgal (matter and energy) and other souls.

“ Mere na huey ye mai insey ati bhinn akhand nirala hun

Nij mai par se anyattva liye nij samras peeney wals hun”

Sri Yugal ji says that the body and wealth etc are not of the soul’s and the soul is absolutely different from them and is indivisible in itself and is distinct and unique.The soul is distinct and different from all ‘the others’ in himself and he enjoys his self-soul’s own eternal bliss.

Sri Daulatramji in his Chhah dhala says that when the soul and body which resides in the same space units just like milk and water are actually different and distinct from each other, then the other things like weath, house etc which can be clearly seen as different from the soul, can be that of the soul’s.Means nothing , not even the body in which the soul resides is part of the soul and the soul is separate and distinct from all these non—self ‘the others’.

Sri Mangatramji very nicely describes this feeling of anyattva or the distinctness of the soul.He says that in this world due to beginingless ignorance of this soul, he is full of misconceptions and he is just like a deer who searches water in the dry desert as he sees falsely a source of water in the desert.And he actually never gets water as water is not there in reality in the desert and it was only a misconception of the deer.Same is the state of this soul in this world .He also searches happiness in the worldly things like body, wealth etc, but they cannot give him happiness in reality.

He says that the soul has to understand that he is different and body is different, he is knowledgeable while the body cannot have knowledge and both are absolutely different, but are residing in the same space units like water and milk and that is why he is mistaking them as one and the same.

The soul is distinct from all ‘the others’ and he should always strife for getting the right faith , right knowledge and right conduct to get salvation.

Dr. Amit Prakash Jain

2.Asaran Bhavana: and 3.Sansar Bhavana:

2.Asaran Bhavana

“Asaran”- means no-sheltor or no-protection.No jeev or soul can be saved from death by anybody or any means.One has to die and leave this body one day- and this is unavoidable truth.

“Samrat mahabal senani uss kshan ko taal sakega kya? Asaran mirth kaaya mai harshit nij-jeevan daal sakega kya?”

Sri Yugalji says that whether he may be a great, brave , warrior king,but can he avoid his death?Can he put back his life into his deadbody?

“Sur asur khagaadhip jetey,mrig jyon hari, kaal darey tein,

Mani mantra tantra bahu hoyee, martey na bachaavey koi”

Sri Daulatramji says that the kings of devtas i.e that is Indras, king of Asur-devtas,kings of birds and all of these, were killed by death just like a deer is killed by lion.And, no precious miraculous things like manis,various mantras or mystical verses etc were able to help them to avoid death.

No one can give you shelter or “saran” in this world.Only our self-soul is the only shelter or saran for us.

Lastly, Sri Bhudhardasji says “dal bal devi devta maat pitaa parivar, marti biriyaan jiv ko koi na raakhan haar”. He says that your parents, your relatives, your power, the gods and goddesses – no one can save you at the time of your death.You have to die, no one is your protector.!!!

So, Asaran bhavana tells us that we should not believe anybody as our shelter or protector in this world.We have to die one day and that our Self-soul is the only true shelter for us.

3.Sansar Bhavana:

Sansar means world in general. What is sansar ?

Combination or association of dravyas or substances is called as sansar.So this world is nothing but an association of all the 6 substances viz.soul, pudagal (matter and energy), dharma, adharm, akash and kaal.

Now why we have to think about this world? We have to do this to see the real nature of this world which is sorrowful and can never give us true happiness.In this sansar we that is the souls are roaming about from one birth to another due to our misconception and ignorance.

“Daam bina nirdhan dukhee, trishna vas dhanwaan,

Kahoon na such sansaar mai sab jag dekhyo chhan.”

Sri Bhudhardasji says that because of lack of wealth a poor is unhappy in this world, but a rich is also not happy here because he has greed for more and more and like this, he says, no one is happy in this world.This world cannot give us happiness.

“Chahun gati jeev bharey hai,parivaratan pachcha karey hai

Sab vidhi sansar asaaraa, yaa mai such naahi lagaara”

Sri Daulatramji says that in this sansar the souls are wandering in the 4 gatis or 4 gategories of states like as in heaven, hell, human beings and as animals etc.And, the souls are experiencing the 5 times of changes which are dravya, kshetra, kaal, bhaav,and bhay means substance,place,time,feeling or thought and life respectively.

But, in all these states the soul is getting sorrow only and there is not even a bit of happiness in this world or sansaar.So we should think this world as sorrowful and should divert ourselves towards our self-soul which is the real and eternal cause of joy foe us.

“Sansar mahadukh sagar ke prabhu dukhmay such abhaason mai

Mujhko na mila such kshan bhar bhi kanchan kaamini praasaadon mai.”

Sri Yugal ji says that that there were many instances in this world which were actually sorrowful but due to my ignorance they appeared to me as that of joy.But in all those things also like wealth and woman etc, I didn’t got a pinch of joy or true happiness even for a moment.

There is nothing in this world which can give a soul joy.Soul can get true joy only in the self-soul.

So, The Sanasr Bhavana tells us to see this world as sorrowful and try to get rid of this vicious cycle of birth and death which is making us to travel in this sorrowful world.

An english expalantion of the 12 feelings or barah bhavanas or Barah Anuprekshas

“Muni sakal vrati badbhaagi, bhav-bhogan tein vairagi

Vairagya upaavan maa e ye chintyo Anupreksha bhai”- Chhah Dhala

It means that the munis or the revered veetragi monks are having the complete vows and are detached from the various worldly pleasures.To obtain such a detachment, the meditation on the Anupreksha or the Barah bhavanas or the twelve feelings are like Mother.

Actually these are the feelings or thoughts about the reality of this world, about our true nature and the causes as well as treatment of the sorrows which are suffered by the soul from the beginingless time.

Many of our acaryas, munis and vidwans and poets have tried to put these 12 thoughts or feelings in their own words in the best possible ways.Most of you must be knowing many of these.Some are very popular ones.I have chosen a few of them for this write up.Some of them is “Raja rana chhatrapati” by Bhudhardasji, Anuprekshas of Chhah dhala by Daulatramji,”Kahaan gaye chakri” by sri Mangatramji and the barah bhavana in the Jaimala of dev-shastra- guru puja by Jugal Kishoreji Yugal.

I have tried my level best, to present these.But, mistakes are natural to appear as I am neither good in understanding nor the language.So wise men are requested to accept my apologies and to correct it.

I will post these bhavanas in various successive posts.

Thanks.

1. Anitya Bhavana :

“Anitya” means that which is not stable.

This world is not stable, means whatever we are seeing are destructible. We are actually seeing the particular states or paryayas of dravyas or substances. Paryayas are not stable and they changes.(but dravya is nitya or stable as it is never destroyed).

“Raja Rana Chhatrpati,haathin ke aswar, marnaa sab ko ek din apni apni baar”

Means,whether he is a king , emperor and used to ride on elephant with great pomp and show, but everyone including him, has to die one day when his turn will come.

“Jhoonthey jag ke sapney sarey,jhoonthi man ki sab aashayein

Tan jeevan youvan asthir hai kshan bhangur pal mai murjhayein”

Here, the poet says that false are all the dreams of this world and false are all the aspirations of our minds, because this body of our’s,this life and this youth is unstable.These are very temprory and will be destroyed with in no time.

“Kahaan gaye chakri jin jeeta bharakhand saraa?”

Sri Mangatramji asks that where have those chakravarti kings gone who had conquered the entire Bharat kshetra? Where are those Ram and Lakshman who killed powerful Ravan? Where is Krishna, his wives Rukmani and Satyabhama etc and that all their wealth and the town made of gold? They are not present today, all have to die one day.

So,the Anitya bhavana says that nothing is forever or permanent in this world.So we must not be attached with the worldly situations , states and relations as they will be destroyed one day for sure.

Dr.Amit Prakash Jain

Thursday, January 20, 2011

Jinvani Prayer with simple english meaning.



Dear all.

Here is a simple english translation of the Jinvani stuti which we recite after any Shastra-sabha.I beg yr pardon for my mistakes and hope that the wise-men will correct it while reading.

Regards.

Dr. Amit Prakash Jain



Mithyatam nashveykhon,gyan ke prakashveykhon

Aapa-par bhas veykhon bhanu si bakhani hai

Means: The words of Sri Jinendra that is Sri Jinvani is like Sun for:

the destruction of the darkness of illusions and wrong beliefs that is mithyathva,

for spreading the light of knowledge,

and for differentiating between the self-soul and the non-self others.

Chhahon dravya jaanvey khon, bandh-vidhi baan veykho

Swa-par pichhan veykhon param pramani hai

Means: Sri Jinvani is the most reliable source for :

Knowing all the six substances,

Understanding the karma bondage,

to understand what is the self-soul and what are the non-self others

Anubhavatay veykehon,jeevon ke jataay veykhon,

Kabhau na sataay veykhon,Bhavya urr aani hai

Means Sri Jinvani has appeared into the hearts of Bhavya souls (those who will attain samyakthva soon ) for :

Making them experience the knowledge about self-soul,

to alert the souls about themselves,

to prevent them from any sorrows.

Jahan tahan tarveykho,paar ke utaar vey kho,sukh vistar veykhon

Yehi Jinvani hai.

And finally Sri Jinvani is the one which is for the betterment of all souls,for sailing them to the shore of the sea of the birth and death and for giving them infinite bliss and joy.

Ja vaani ke kyan tein soojhey lokalok,soh vani mastak dharon sadaa de thon dhok.

Means: With the knowledge of Jinvani, there comes the knowledge of all the living as well as non-living worlds.To that Jinvani,I will always bow down and pay my Obeisance.

Hey Jinvani Bharti tohey japun din-rein,jo thari sharna gahey so peavey such-chain.

Means : Oh mother Jinvani !!! I recite you day and night,as the one who takes your protection gets happiness and satisfaction.

“oh Jinendra !!! I beg your pardon and sak you to forgive me for any mistakes done by me in this write-up- knowingly nas well as unknowingly.